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EXTRA CELLULAR MATRIX(ECM)
The substance or macromolecule secreted or synthesized by local cells in the tissue is called extra cellular matrix. It has an active and complex role in regulating the cell behavior. In most connective tissues, the matrix macromolecules are secreted largely by cells called fibroblasts. In certain special types of connective tissues, such as cartilage and bone, however, they are secreted by the cells of fibroblast family that have more specific names: chondroblasts, for example, form cartilage and osteoblasts form bone. There are two main classes of extra cellular matrix:
- Fibrous protein
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are unbranched polysaccharide chains compose of repeating disaccharide units. They are call GAGs because one of the two sugar (N-acetylglycosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) which in most cases are sulfate. The second sugar is usually a uronic acid(glucuronic or idouronic). There are four types of GAG chain:
- Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate
- Heparan sulfate
- Keratan sulfate
GAGs are covalently attach to protein to form proteoglycans. It is produce by mostly animal cells. Membrane bound ribosome’s make the core protein of proteoglycans which is then thread into the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum. Proteoglycans can be huge or small.
Important component of extracellular matrix. It have elongated shape.The special types of fibrous proteins are :- collagen, elastin and adhesive protein(fibronectinand laminin).They have low solubility in water.Fibrous protein have amino acid sequences that favour a particular kind of secondary structure.
It is the family of fibrous protein find in multicellular animals.It is the major component of skin and bone.The most abundant proteins in mammals. It is long , stiff, and has triple stranded helical structure.They are extremely rich in proline and glycine. 40 types of collagen molecules have been find.
It is a network of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of these tissue gives them the require resilience.The main component is elastin are :- hydrophobic protein which contains hydroxylysine soluble tropoelastin which is secreted into the extracellular space and assemble into elastic fibers close to the plasma membrane. Elastin compose of two types of short segments :-Hydrophobic segments- responsible forelastic properties of molecule.Alanine and lysine – rich in alpha helicals segments which form cross link between adjacent molecules.
Adhesive is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighboring cells through specialized molecules of the cells surface.There are three types of adhesive protein:
Fibronectin is a large glycoprotein find in all vertebrates and important for many cell matrix. It is dimer compose of two very large sub units join by sulfide bonds at one end.The integrins provide a linkage from the fibronectin outside the cell to the actins cytoskeleton.The linkage provide tension to the fibronectin molecules.
Laminin are the family of extracellular glycoprotein that consist of three different polypeptide chains link by disulfide bonds. 15 different laminin have been identify. Like fibronectin, extracellular laminin can greatly influence a cell’s potential for migration, growth, and differentiation.
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